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The beginning of the "Great Persecution" under Diocletian and Galerius in 303
as found in Lactantius Liber de Mortibus Persecutorum, XI - XIII (On the Deaths of Persecutors, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died)
Click here to read at earlychurchtexts.com in the original Latin (with dictionary lookup links). The English translation below is from the ANF series.
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Geoffrey de Ste Croix
G. W. Bowersock
Robin Lane Fox
XI. The mother of Galerius, a woman exceedingly superstitious, was a votary of the gods of the mountains. Being of such a character, she made sacrifices almost every day, and she feasted her servants on the meat offered to idols: but the Christians of her family would not partake of those entertainments; and while she feasted with the Gentiles, they continued in fasting and prayer. On this account she conceived ill-will against the Christians, and by woman-like complaints instigated her son, no less superstitious than herself, to destroy them. So, during the whole winter, Diocletian and Galerius held councils together, at which no one else assisted; and it was the universal opinion that their conferences respected the most momentous affairs of the empire. The old man long opposed the fury of Galerius, and showed how pernicious it would be to raise disturbances throughout the world and to shed so much blood; that the Christians were wont with eagerness to meet death; and that it would be enough for him to exclude persons of that religion from the court and the army. Yet he could not restrain the madness of that obstinate man. He resolved, therefore, to take the opinion of his friends. Now this was a circumstance in the bad disposition of Diocletian, that whenever he determined to do good, he did it without advice, that the praise might be all his own; but whenever he determined to do ill, which he was sensible would be blamed, he called in many advisers, that his own fault might be imputed to other men: and therefore a few civil magistrates, and a few military commanders, were admitted to give their counsel; and the question was put to them according to priority of rank. Some, through personal ill-will towards the Christians, were of opinion that they ought to be cut off, as enemies of the gods and adversaries of the established religious ceremonies. Others thought differently, but, having understood the will of Galerius, they, either from dread of displeasing or from a desire of gratifying him, concurred in the opinion given against the Christians. Yet not even then could the emperor be prevailed upon to yield his assent. He determined above all to consult his gods; and to that end he despatched a soothsayer to inquire of Apollo at Miletus, whose answer was such as might be expected from an enemy of the divine religion. So Diocletian was drawn over from his purpose. But although he could struggle no longer against his friends, and against Cæsar and Apollo, yet still he attempted to observe such moderation as to command the business to be carried through without bloodshed; whereas Galerius would have had all persons burnt alive who refused to sacrifice.
XII. A fit and auspicious day was sought out for the
accomplishment of this undertaking; and the festival of the god Terminus,
celebrated on the sevens of the kalends of March, was chosen, in preference to
all others, to terminate, as it were, the Christian religion.
XIII. Next day an edict was published,
depriving the Christians of all honours and dignities; ordaining also that,
without any distinction of rank or degree, they should be subjected to tortures,
and that every suit at law should be received against them; while, on the other
hand, they were debarred from being plaintiffs in questions of wrong, adultery,
or theft; and, finally, that they should neither be capable of freedom, nor have
right of suffrage. A certain person tore down this edict, and cut it in pieces,
improperly indeed, but with high spirit, saying in scorn, “These are the
triumphs of Goths and Sarmatians.” Having been instantly seized and brought to
judgment, he was not only tortured, but burnt alive, in the forms of law; and
having displayed admirable patience under sufferings, he was consumed to ashes.
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Liber de Mortibus Persecutorum
Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died
On the Deaths of the Persecutors
Persecution of Christians under Roman Empire
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